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Pipe Fittings

A pipe fitting is defined as a part used in a piping system, to change direction or function, which is mechanically joined to the system.


Probably the simplest way to achieve this would be to bend the pipe in the direction required, but this process will stretch and thin the outer wall whilst thickening and wrinkling the inner wall. This results in flow resistance and accelerated wall erosion.
A second method sometimes used is a mitre joint, where pipes are cut to the correct angle and welded together to achieve the desired change. Whilst the cross-sectional area and wall thickness are maintained, a great deal of efficiency is lost due to friction and turbulence resulting from the severe changes in direction. For example, a single-mitre bend offers about six times the resistance of a swept elbow.
For these reasons swept fittings are preferred on most piping systems, particularly where internal pressure, flow and corrosion are of major consideration.